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18 Biosphere Reserves of India

LIST OF 18 BIOSPHERE RESERVES IN INDIA:


            A Biosphere Reserve is a special ecosystem or a specialized environment with a flora and fauna that require protection and nurturing.The International Co-ordinating Council (ICC) of UNESCO introduced the designation of ‘Biosphere reserve’ for natural areas in November, 1971.Biosphere Reserves of India often include one or more National Parks or sanctuaries, along with buffer zones that are open to some economic uses.The Indian government has established 18 biosphere reserves in India.11 of the eighteen biosphere reserves are a part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, based on the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme list.

Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve:

Established Year: 1986
State: Tamilnadu,Andhra pradesh,Kerala
Location: Western Ghats
Key Fauna: Nilgiri Tahr, Lion-tailed macaque
Key Flora: Sholas

  • It is one of the Biosphere Reserves included in the UNESCO  list of Biosphere Reserves.          
  • It is added to the list of UNESCO in the year 2000.   
  • It is the first Biosphere Reserve established in India
  • It has an area of 5,520 square kilometre

Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve:

Established Year: 1988 State:  Uttarakhand
Location: Western Himalayas
Key Fauna: Snow Leopard, Himalayan Black Bear
Key Flora:  Fir, birch, rhododendron, juniper

  • It is one of the Biosphere Reserves included in the UNESCO list of Biosphere Reserves. 
  • It is added to the list of UNESCO in the year 2001.
  • It has a Area of 5860 square kilometre
  • It is the Second Biosphere Reserve established in India

Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve:

Established Year: 1989
State: Tamil Nadu
Location: CoastsKey Fauna: Dugong
Key Flora: Sea Grass, Sea Weed, Sea Cucumber

  • It is one of the Biosphere Reserves included in the UNESCO list of Biosphere Reserves.
  • It is added to the list of UNESCO in the year 2001.
  • The Gulf of Mannar is known for its pearl banks of Pinctada radiata and Pinctada fucata for at least two thousand years.
  • It has an Area of 10,500 square kilometre .

Nokrek Biosphere Reserve:

Established Year:  1988
State:  Meghalaya
Location: East Himalayas
Key Fauna: Red panda
Key Flora: Grand rasamala, White meranti, Lali, Chempaka

  • It is one of the Biosphere Reserves included in the UNESCO list of Biosphere Reserves.
  • It is added to the list of UNESCO in the year 2009.
  • Nokrek is also an important habitat of the Asian elephants.
  • It has an area of 47.5 square kilometre.

Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve:

Established Year:1989
State: West Bengal
Location: Gangetic Delta
Key Fauna: Royal Bengal tiger
Key Flora: Garjan, Gewa, Goran, Keora and Sundari trees.

  • It is one of the Biosphere Reserves included in the      UNESCO list of Biosphere Reserves.
  • It is added to the list of UNESCO in the year 2001.
  • The Sundarbans Mangroves ecoregion  is the world’s largest mangrove ecosystem .
  •  It has an area of 9630 Square kilmetre.

Manas Biosphere Reserve:

Established Year: 1989
State: Assam
Location: East Himalayas
Key Fauna: Asiatic Elephant, Tiger, Assam roofed turtle, hispid hare, Golden Langur, pygmy hog
Key Flora: Clerodendrum, Leea, Grewia, Premna and Mussaenda

  • The name of the park is originated from the Manas River.
  • The annual average rainfall here is around 333 cm.
  • It has an Area of 2837 Square kilometre.

Simlipal Biosphere Reserve:

Established Year: 1994
State: Odisha
Location: Deccan Peninsula
Key Fauna: Gaur, royal Bengal tiger, Asian elephant Key Flora:  Eucalyptus

  • It is one of the Biosphere Reserves included in the UNESCO list of Biosphere Reserves.
  • It is added to the list of UNESCO in the year 2009.
  • It is the 7th largest national park in India. 
  • It has an Area of 4374 Square kilometre.

 Dihang-Dibang Biosphere Reserve:

Established Year: 1998
State: Arunachal Pradesh
Location: Eastern Himalaya
Key Fauna: Mishmi Takin, Musk Deer

  • Rare mammals such as Mishmi takin, red goral, musk deer is found here.
  • It has natural vegetation stretching in an unbroken sequence from the tropics to mountain tundra.
  • It has an Area of 5112 square Kilometre.

Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve:

Established Year: 1999
State: Madhya Pradesh
Location: Semi Arid Region
Key Fauna: Giant squirrel, flying squirrel Key Flora:Sal and Teak

  • It is one of the Biosphere Reserves included in the UNESCO list of Biosphere Reserves.
  • It is added to the list of UNESCO in the year 2009.
  • It has an Area of 4981.72 Square kilometre.

Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve:

Established Year: 2005
State: Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh
Location: Maikala Hills
Key Fauna: Four-horned antelope, Indian wild dog, Sarus crane, White-rumped vulture, Philautus
Key Flora: Pine, Juniper, Cedar and Cypress

  • It is one of the Biosphere Reserves included in the UNESCO list of Biosphere Reserves.
  • It is added to the list of UNESCO in the year 2012.
  • It has an Area of 3835 Square kilometre.

Great Rann of Kutch Biosphere Reserve:

Established Year: 2008
State: Gujarat
Location: Desert Key
Fauna: Indian wild ass

  • This is one of the hottest areas of India with summer temperatures averaging at 49.5 °C.
  • It forms the International Border between India and Pakistan.
  • It has an Area of 12454 Square kilometre.

Cold Desert Biosphere Reserve:

Established Year: 2009
State: Himachal Pradesh
Location: Western Himalayas
Key Fauna: Snow leopard

  • They are not affected by the Indian monsoons because they lie in the rain shadow of the Himalayas.
  • It has an Area of 7770 Square Kilometre.

Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve:

Established Year: 2000
State: Sikkim
Location: East Himalayas
Key Fauna: Snow leopard, red panda

  • It is one of the Biosphere Reserves included in the      UNESCO list of Biosphere Reserves.
  • It is added to the list of UNESCO in the year 2018.
  • It is the most recent and the last Indian Biosphere Reserve to join the list.
  • This Biosphere Reserve contains Kangchenjunga which is the third highest mountain in the world.
  • It has an Area of 2620 Square kilometre.

Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve:

Established Year: 2001
State: Kerala, Tamil Nadu
Location: Western Ghats
Key Fauna: Nilgiri tahr, elephants

  • It is one of the Biosphere Reserves included in the      UNESCO list of Biosphere Reserves.
  • It is added to the list of UNESCO in the year 2016.
  • It has an Area of 3500.08 Square kilometre.

Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve:

Established Year: 1989
State: Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Location: Islands
Key Fauna: Saltwater crocodile
Key Flora: Screw Pine, Nipa Palm

  • It is one of the Biosphere Reserves included in the UNESCO list of Biosphere Reserves
  • It is added to the list of UNESCO in the year 2013.
  • It has an Area of 885 Square kilometre.

   

Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve:

Established Year: 1997
State: Assam
Location: East Himalayas
Key Fauna: white-winged wood duck, water buffalo, black-breasted parrotbill, tiger, capped langur
Key Flora: Dillenia indica, Bischofia javanica, Bombax ceiba, Lagerstroemia parviflora, Terminalia myriocarpa,Dalbergia sissoo, and Ficus. 

  • It is the largest salix swamp forest in north-eastern India, with a tropical monsoon climate with a hot and wet summer and cool and usually dry winter.
  • It has an Area of 765 Square kilometre. 

Seshachalam Hills Biosphere Reserve:

Established Year: 2010
State: Andhra Pradesh
Location: Eastern Ghats
Key Fauna: Slender Loris

  • Minerals contained in these hills are sandstone and shale interbedded with limestone.
  • It has an Area of 4755 Square kilometre

Panna Biosphere Reserve:

Established Year: 2011
State: Madhya Pradesh
Location: Catchment Area of the Ken River
Key Fauna: Area of the Ken River Tiger, chital, chinkara, sambhar and sloth bear

  • It was declared in 1994 as the twenty second Tiger reserve of India and the fifth in Madhya Pradesh.
  • It has an Area of 2998.98 Square kilometre.

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