Hello friends, Today we will discuss about Block Diagram of Computer and the Explanation of its various components in detail. Please stay alive till the end to know more interesting data about the Computer and it’s working function.
Computer – A computer is a device that accepts information and manipulates it for some result based on a program or sequence of instructions on how the data is to be processed. Computer i.e a combination of two words “compute” + “er”. “Compute” means calculation and “er” means device. In other words, the Computer is an electronic device. It can perform all type of mathematical and logical operation.
Generation of Computer:- (Hardware)
|1st Generation (1940-1958)||Vaccum Tube|
|2nd Generation (1959-1964)||Transistors|
|3rd Generation (1965-1970)||IC (integrated circuit)|
|4th Generation (1971-present)||LSI(Large Scale integration), VLSI(Very large scale integration) ULSI (Ultra large scale integration)|
|5th Generation (Today)||Still under development phase|
INPUT:- Input is the raw data entered into a computer from the input devices. It is the collection of numbers, letters, images, etc. Keyboard, Mouse, scanner, webcam, etc are some examples of the input devices.
PROCESS:- Process is the operation of data or information as per given instruction. It is totally internal process of the computer system. CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the main processing device of the computer.
OUTPUT:- Output is the result of processed data given by computer after data processing. we can save these results in the storage devices for future use. Monitor, Printer, Speaker are the main output devices.
Computer System is classified into two parts. They are
❖ Computer Hardware:- All the physical component that grouped together and form a complete system known as hardware. e.g:- PC-Case, motherboard, RAM, ROM, Hard Disk, Monitor, keyboard, mouse. etc.
❖ System Unit:- A system unit includes a board called a motherboard that holds a microprocessor chip (or a CPU), memory chips, and expansion slots. Electronic circuitry is printed on the board and it connects between two main parts of a microcomputer, the microprocessor and primary storage and other parts.
The motherBoard is known as System Board.
A system unit includes the following parts:
- Motherboard Microprocessor
- Memory Chips
- System Clock
- Expansion Slots and Cards
Hardware is divided into three parts:-
- Central Processing Unit (CPU)
- Memory Unit
- Peripheral Device
❖ Central Processing Unit:-
The central processing unit is called the brain of the computer system. It is also known as microprocessor when it is constructed on a single chip. Arithmetic logic and control unit along with registers forms a complete central processing unit and central processing unit along with the input/output unit and memory unit forms a computer system.
Microprocessors process the instruction. The microprocessor is made of millions of transistors. These are tiny electronic devices that carry an electric charge. The first microprocessor 4004 was invented by INTEL in 1971. It was a 4-bit microprocessor designed for a specific application. In 1972, the first general-purpose microprocessor 8008 was introduced. It was an 8-bit microprocessor. At present 32/64 bit processor present in the market.
Note:- All CPU’s are known as microprocessor but all processors are not CPU. Because CPU control all the components of the computer system whereas the processor only process the instruction. Processors can’t control any component.
❖ Control Unit:-
Control Unit controls the flow of information within the computer system. Control units are in-charge of the computer. Computer Aptitude Control units decode machine instructions and generate control signal. Control units may also control some external devices.
❖ ALU (Arithmetical Logical Unit):-
An arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) performs arithmetic and logic operations. It performs only four types of mathematical operations i.e. +, -, etc. Main Memory Unit: Main Memory unit known as main memory or primary memory. Memory Unit is the internal memory. It is also known as a semiconductor memory.
- RAM- (Random Access Memory) It is a read and writes memory. It is a volatile and temporary memory. RAM is classified into 2 types. They are Static RAM, Dynamic RAM.
- ROM- (Read Only Memory) It is a permanent memory, read-only memory and Non-Volatile. ROM allows data and instruction to be read and does not allow the user to write anything on it. The contents of the ROM are written by the manufacturer at the time of manufacturing.
❖ Peripheral Devices:-
Auxiliary equipment used in computer like input device, output device, storage device, communication device or other functions under the direct control of a computer.
A computer hardware or device capable of accepting data or instructions. E.g keyboard, mouse, light pen, joystick, bar code reader, scanner, microphone etc
- Keyboard:- Keyboard is the most common data entry device. Using Keyboard, User can type text and execute commands. • It is known as a standard input device.
- Mouse:- It is known as a standard pointing device. You can use the mouse only in GUI. Mouse was invented by Douglas Engelbart in 1967. There are two types of mouse. These are Mechanical mouse & Optical Mouse
- Trackball:- Trackball is another pointing device that is used instead of Mouse. Nowadays trackball is used to control cursor movement on a mobile phone to access the Internet.
- Light pen:- It is also a pointing device. You can use the light pen for digital signature. A light pen can work with any CRT- based monitor, but not with LCD screens, projectors or other display devices.
- Joy Stick:- It is also known as a pointing device. A joystick is used for computer games as they provide better control.
- Scanner:- A scanner allows you to capture documents or pictures that are printed on paper and turn them into digital format to be viewed on a computer.
Computer hardware of device capable of displaying the result of the processed data. E.g monitor (VDU), printer, plotter, speaker etc.
- Monitor:- Monitor is known as Standard output device. It is also known as a visual display unit. The monitor displays the computer’s user interface and open programs, allowing the user to interact with the computer.
- Printer:– Printer is an output device that prints text or image on paper. The output given out by the printer on a paper is called a hard copy.
- Speaker:– A speaker is an output device that is used to play sound. Speakers allow you to hear sounds and music on computer.
Computer hardware devices used for storing information permanently. It is also known as secondary memory. E.g hard disk, floppy disk, compact disk, pen drive etc.
- Hard Disk:- A magnetic disk on which you can store computer data. Hard Disk is a computer main storage device and can hold more data & faster than other storage devices. The hard drive was first introduced on September 13, 1956.
- Floppy Disk:- A small, portable magnetic disk that is used to store and transport computer data. It is also known as a Diskette.
- Pen Drive:- A small portable USB flash drive consists of flash memory data storage device integrated with USB. A pen drive is a plug n play device known as USB flash drive, jump drive, thumb drive etc. The USB Flash Drive was introduced in 1996 and invented by Dov Moran.
Communication device – microphone, modem, router Peripheral Device
- Microphone:– A microphone is a device to input sound information. It allows you to record sound and voice to place onto the computer.